Music From Earth

The sounds of the earth recorded by NASA and featured in the video I posted might sound a bit like cacophonous noise to you, or perhaps like a noisy summer pond where crickets, birds, and frogs are competing for attention. This is because there is no single composer or conductor for this music, and the earth is not making any attempt to be coherent or cohesive.

Image result for sheet music

We might experience the same confusing blend of voices when reading a collection of literature from around the world. Often, literature anthologies are designed as a collection of the “best of the best” without thought to thematic connections. You get a little bit of everything, which is good, but it can lead to a case of literary indigestion. You cover a lot of ground, but just by sampling a lot of different things, but to what end?

When we listen to music, most of us at least want it to make sense. We crave the structure of melody, verses, and choruses. We want something clear we can hold on to and anticipate when we hit repeat and listen again. We also generally want a clear message that matches the emotion of the song. Sad lyrics for a slow song in a minor key, for example. Or a triumphant tone celebrating success in a loud, foot-stomping stadium anthem. We want a song to match our mood, and we expect not a single note to be out of tune. We also need to be able to categorize music into genre (rock, rap, country) so that we can know which radio stations to seek out and how to build a coherent playlist.

Image result for radio dialBut what if you played five radio stations at once? Would anything make sense? The lyrics would contradict themselves, the sounds would clash, and would be unlikely to be a pleasant experience. This five-headed monster would not be delivering to you what you want in music: a particular experience, rooted in some particular emotion, that serves you for the moment. Nevertheless, I think, without a doubt, that these five songs played together, while maybe not terribly pleasing, actually do make sense, and might actually be singing the very same song, seen from a certain perspective. All five vocalists are singing to express themselves, some particular emotion or situation. They all likely use notes that fit within a relatively narrow range. The songs (if played on the radio) will probably all be about three minutes long. And, when the emotion of the song becomes particularly intense, the pitch will increase and the tempo pick up. If nothing else, much like birds, crickets, and frogs, who are crying out in the pond from their shared sense of animalness, in the need to reproduce, intimate, or be afraid (or, in the case of some birds, just for the fun of it), these singers are singing the same song, borne out of the need communicate important, maybe urgent and intense, human emotion in a fairly limited (at least for radio songs) format that commonly follows a verse, verse, chorus, verse, chorus, bridge, verse chorus format. You’ll also find that most popular songs are either about falling in love, breaking up, or going out to the club. Five different songs, but clear, if general patterns in terms of form and content. All this, and there will still be innumerable differences.

The Earth’s Song, the sounds of the earth recorded by NASA, is just the result of random radio emissions. But, the literature of earthlings might be the best record of earth’s actual song, an attempt to express what it means to live on planet Earth. We don’t need to read five different works of literature at once to try this out. Instead, all we really have to do is survey works of literature from around the world and from across time, and then look for patterns that emerge. Just as songs on the radio will have enough differences to be able to separate them and place in different genres and stations, yet enough similarities allowing us to set our watch every three minutes, important works of literature from around the world and across time tend to repeat certain patterns of both form content. It will be our work in this course to learn those patterns and to connect many great works of literature, without ignoring the countless differences, which is, after all, what makes literature, and life on earth, great. Image result for earth

We must start then by orienting ourselves to a wider perspective based on the scope of human history, and the planet itself. If we want to get a sense of what literature is (more on the definition of the word literature in a bit) then we must not limit ourselves to what might be counted as literature today, or to texts that are commonly adopted as the literary canon for high school and college classes.

 

Once we take this more global/historical view, we encounter at least three different question areas or problems:

  1. The very definition of literature is called into question. The Latin origin of “letters” is too restrictive once we’ve gone back far enough to see the origins of literature in orality and the sacred rituals more commonly ascribed to mythology (itself studied as a sometimes quarantined branch of literature).
  2. Just as Africa is not a country, the world is not one thing, and world literatures will be fighting amongst themselves even about basic existential questions (see #1). Literary indigestion follows.  Here John Keats’ concept of Negative Capability is helpful, from his 1817 letter to his brother:

“I had not a dispute but a disquisition, with Dilke on various subjects; several things dove-tailed in my mind, and at once it struck me what quality went to form a Man of Achievement, especially in Literature, and which Shakespeare possessed so enormously – I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason-Coleridge, for instance, would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half-knowledge. This pursued through volumes would perhaps take us no further than this, that with a great poet the sense of Beauty overcomes every other consideration, or rather obliterates all consideration.

So, while literature typically doesn’t set out to provide answers, or to present itself as a definitive text on how to live (that might more be the role of theology, scripture, or philosophy) it does often hit on the big ideas, and while one goal of reading world literature might be to make connections and look for agreements across culture, the world is big enough to hold a range of competing (and contradictory) perspectives.

3. At the same time, while it it is necessary to avoid placing one culture as the victor when reading world literature, patterns do emerge. Is it possible to find something common to humanity in world literature without cancelling the differences, over-simplifying the matter, or imposing an unconscious (or conscious for that matter) Western cultural hegemony? Such an exercise is only possible if we avoid squaring the circle or thinking we can solve some riddle.

Let’s look at two examples from the study of religion that might serve as examples.

Aldous Huxley (most widely known as the author of Brave New World and The Doors of Perception, wrote a book in 1945 called the Perennial Philosophy. In it, he attempted to draw parallels between the major world religions at the most abstract level:

The Perennial Philosophy is an attempt to present this Highest Common Factor of all theologies by assembling passages from the writings of those saints and prophets who have approached a direct spiritual knowledge of the Divine”

Differences were not terminated or ignored; instead Huxley constructed a collective framework highlighting the shared assumptions and pursuits, like a lattice work providing a uniform space different plants could ascend. His lattice had four levels:

First: the phenomenal world of matter and of individualized consciousness–the world of things and animals and men and even gods–is the manifestation of a Divine Ground within which all partial realities have their being, and apart from which they would be non-existent.

Second: human beings are capable not merely of knowing about the Divine Ground by inference; they can also realize its existence by a direct intuition, superior to discursive reasoning. This immediate knowledge unites the knower with that which is known.

Third: man possesses a double nature, a phenomenal ego and an eternal Self, which is the inner man, the spirit, the spark of divinity within the soul. It is possible for a man, if he so desires, to identify himself with the spirit and therefore with the Divine Ground, which is of the same or like nature with the spirit.

Fourth: man’s life on earth has only one end and purpose: to identify himself with his eternal Self and so to come to unitive knowledge of the Divine Ground.”

Additionally, religious scholar Huston Smith, author of The World’s Religions, created a chart that attempts something similar to Huxley, an argument of sorts that all world religions are structured in the same manner, even though the terminology is different:

Image result for huston smith chart

In reading world literature and considering its competing themes, we don’t need to go as far as Huxley or Smith. So, I should say we are ultimately making patterns out of some of the real highlights of world literature, and works that deal with abstract, high level themes: Love, Death, Transcendence, War, Human Failings, Individualism, Society, etc. Perhaps the strategy is something like this:

  1. Look across history and the world for commonalities in the techniques and content of literature.
  2. Avoid deciding which culture or literature is right or wrong.
  3. Yet, still look for larger patterns that emerge and broad themes that might be considered timeless or universal, understanding that such a pursuit is fraught with complications.

Ultimately, we do this to make a map of sorts out of which we can navigate through world literature, but we must keep in mind the old saying, “The map is not the territory.” We must also remember that maps are created sometimes to distort reality, and that even basic decisions (such which way is up) have no objective answer. Framed Upside Down Map of the World Print

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Embedded Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes

Mythology 2016 Course Videos (in 2 playlists)

4 Quotations on the Present Dilemma in Online Education

“If I were to compare this time in MOOC development to internet search, Alta Vista just got invented — Google hasn’t even arrived yet. This is still so early.”
New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman, April 2013

“When faced with a totally new situation, we tend always to attach ourselves to the objects, to the flavor of the most recent past. We look at the present through a rearview mirror. We march backwards into the future. Suburbia lives imaginatively in Bonanza-land.” (p. 74-75) McLuhan, M. (1967). The Medium Is the Message: An Inventory of Effects. Berkeley: Gingko Press.

Dabbagh and Bannan-Ritland (2005) “The Creation process for online course content is often perceived to be the direct transfer or copying of traditional curricular material to the Web with little or no modification.” (qtd in Designing Effective Online Instruction)

“Much technology use in education uses new tools to largely replicate learning models of the past.” David Thornburg, “Learning on the Holodeck” (2010)

Nine Rules for the Education Apocalypse

1. Don’t fear the Apocalypse. Emily Dickinson knew she was in the presence of poetry when she could feel physically the top of her head coming off. This was not a metaphor. It was a mystical experience. Incidentally, the word “apocalypse” (from the Greek apokaluptein) means “revelation,” and more specifically “to uncover,” as in lifting the top of a box. Surprise! It’s a present! Let’s not fear the apocalypse, but instead prepare our education system for transformation. Instead of exams, let’s assess them on whether or not the tops of their heads come off. Education should be about running a more complex, subtle operating system.

2. Suck less. There is this guy with a tug-boat who hauls icebergs from the North Pole to the Middle East to provide fresh water for billions. His job is easier than getting students to learn and getting teachers to teach. You can tug an iceberg to a desert and everyone will drink, but you can’t lead anyone to learning. I have yet to see a so-called education reformer address the fundamental problem with the education system, which is, put succinctly: school sucks. Boredom is the main currency of education, exchanged fluidly between teachers and pupils.

3. Create a new center. Where is the Andy Warhol of education reform, charging way out in front of the generals, the avant-garde? It was Warhol who created a new center out in the margins. He built a new camp that at first looked foolish, laughable, but soon became the new center. Prophecy. Then, after some time, his work became the status quo, until…look…here comes another Andy!

4. Be Useless. In The Idea of a University, Cardinal John Henry Newman creates a distinction between useful and useless knowledge, and then sides mainly with the latter. The Liberal Arts are the useless arts and, therefore, supremely useful. The merely useful fields of study are definitely useful, make no mistake, but they are not nearly useless enough. Chuang Tzu knew this, and so favored the disabled and crooked trees, and generally preferred to drag his tail in the mud rather than coming to court with sage advice for the king. Too few sages make the difficult decision to be useless. Too many decide to be useful, to claim a role in the established drama. Watch out for anyone chasing his destiny, submitting to fate, or following his dreams! Too often people dream of being useful. What’s the use in that? The earth, to pick one example, is completely useless. It doesn’t do anything. It plays a non-zero-sum game, and, even better, it’s totally unaware of itself, or at least can’t be bothered to submit the proper reports. The earth doesn’t care. It treats humanity like a straw dog. It does nothing, endlessly. See that oh-so-exquisite school of fish circling the coral? It dissipates, and then reconstitutes itself into various, ever-changing patterns. Constant adjustment, constant beauty, constant change. This is what we should be teaching our children: how to make beautiful schools. Of course, this requires rules and hard work. But mostly it means being useless and doing nothing.

5. End grades. If we treat students like rubrics, don’t be surprised if all they care about is grades, or, worse yet, don’t care about grades at all. The best students and the worst students are the ones who don’t care about grades. Students are not percentages, points, letters; they are not dollar signs, checked or unchecked boxes on rubrics. They are whole people and will respond as such if you treat them accordingly. A rubric is for a mechanic. This is what’s wrong with your car. This checks out okay. Transaction complete. Let me top off your fluid. If creating life-long learners is what we’re after, then why do we care so much if they get it right at the end of each three-month block? Let’s measure them in thirty years. See how well we did. Assess this: Dharma burning through Karma. Or, “We’ll change your brain, or your money back!” MRI instead of final exam. Replace the scantron with the brain scan.There are no grades in reality. There is only practice. The world is practice. God is practicing right damn now. Hey, Shakespeare, you forgot to finish that subplot with Polonius spying on Laertes in Paris. Minus 10 points on your little Hamlet play. Also, your main character has too many contradictions. Was he insane? Was he faking? It’s really unclear. Plus, I’m pretty sure you plagiarized, Shakespeare. I saw you looking over little Thomas Kyd’s shoulder.

6. Destroy Departments; Kill Majors. The new schools should soften all boundaries between genres, subjects, majors, departments, and degrees and instead orient student energy around direct action, creation, and experiment. The only reform necessary is a release and redistribution of energy. (Education reform! Ha! Was it ever formed to begin with?) The ever-shrinking art, music, physical education problem solved: do them all at once: climb and swing from ropes to splatter paint while listening to music and recording audio and video to edit into a film later. Or else we do all school work while walking 2.2. miles-per-hour on treadmills, ala Brain Rules by John Medina. Walking and writing. Perfect. Word art! Large scale installation art work made of language, maybe heavy-lifting in there, too. Let’s throw all subjects together! Science and Home Economics and History, study the chemical composition of food and the history and culture of dishes and cuisines. History, Literature, Religion, Philosophy, Psychology, Astrobiology, Evolution….these are not separate subjects. Never could be. The inventor of the concept of “bits” thought of himself as neither physicist nor engineer. The writings of Emerson are neither essays, sermons, or in line with normative categories of literature we might use to partition a syllabus: poem, play, fiction, non-fiction. What was Teilhard deChardin writing? You might find him in the bookstore under philosophy, religion, paleontology? Joseph Campbell? Marshall McLuhan? Bucky Fuller? There is nothing liberal about partitioning knowledge into categories or majors. The globe cannot be divided into majors and minors, so neither can its consciousness. The university is the globe’s consciousness. Not, “What’s your major?” but what are you working on, thinking about, advocating, becoming? Not, “Where are you from?” but “Who are you now?” In order to change schools, you would have to change yourself, and no one wants that. Socrates, at the beginning of Western Education, said, “Know Thyself!” and still, we do not listen.

7. No classrooms! Learning is the goal. Who cares the vehicle? As soon as you set the times for a class period, you kill learning, which does not occur in 50 minutes chunks at the appointed time. In school, out of school. In class, after class. Such ridiculous boundaries. Education has a design problem. Create whole learning environments, entire learning communities (not just like two classes jammed together for 6 credits.) I mean a whole learning world. Does the Internet exist? I mean, if the internet is everywhere, it is nowhere. It just is. If it’s in our cars, phones, brains, then it is an extension of life as we know it. Same for education, same then doubly of online education. It should be called just education, and then, not even that. There is no classroom, never was—don’t go to class—you are the classroom, the pupil, the teacher, the world, the universe, basic human consciousness is the university. The university is nowhere and everywhere or else its center is everywhere and circumference nowhere. I forget which one.

8. No more hoops and papers! Jump through the hoop! Get the piece of paper! No, let’s paper over the hoop and at least make them crash through it. Or shrink the hoop! Maybe expand its circumference beyond detection. Make the center of the hoop everywhere, the circumference nowhere! If you get your piece of paper, you will be prepared, at least, for the coming fascist onslaught. (Show me your papers!) If the paper is what matters, than the trappings of education matter. The book itself matters more than the content, more than the act of reading. Book as bludgeoning device. There is no teachable moment, only one continuous mistake. Shikanza, shikanza. Your assignment for next time: Build a new planet from scratch with your hands.

9. Charter for a New University (Based on Mirra Alfassa’s Auroville Charter)

—The university belongs to nobody in particular. It belongs to humanity as a whole. But to live in the University, one must be the willing servitor of the Global Consciousness.

—The university will be the place of an unending education, of constant progress and a youth that never ages.

—The university wants to be the bridge between the past and the future. Taking advantage of all discoveries from without and from within, the University will boldly spring toward the future realization.

—The University will be a site of material and spiritual research for a living embodiment of an actual human unity.

The Teaching-Learning Paradox Revisited (Part 3: Solving the Paradox)

Brief summary of Parts 1 and 2:

In Part 1, I revisited a puzzling 1968 study (supported by follow-up articles) that concluded teaching method has no impact on final exam performance. In Part 2, I explored a possible conclusion of these results: we should focus on learning, not teaching, and we should accept student effort and study time as the main difference makers in exam performance. This doesn’t mean that teachers do not matter. Instead, it means that pedagogy is less important than whether or not learning is actually happening. And, as I suggest in Part 2, cognitive research may help us learn how to learn.

Solving the Teaching-Learning Paradox

In some respects, the results of The Teaching-Learning Paradox are a miracle. Regardless of teaching method, despite the circumstances before them, no matter the quality of teacher or program, the students learned, and they demonstrated their learning consistently across time. On one level, the results of “No Difference” seem nihilistic. Nothing we do will matter! On another level, it reveals the power of student effort and learning. No matter what constraint, strategy, or limitation thrown at them, the students learned! And they performed the same each time. The students who wanted to put forth the effort and earn their “A’s” did so, in each study, regardless of method. No matter what you do to stop them, learning will happen! As Dr. Malcolm in Jurassic Park proclaims, “Life finds a way.”

So how can teachers teach in support of learning? In Jurassic Park, scientists alter DNA in order to breed females exclusively and restrict natural reproduction. Life finds a way (via mutations or some rare gender-jumping frog DNA) around these limitations, and natural reproduction goes on. Once we start to look at the results of The Teaching-Learning Paradox this way, we should see the results as positive. Student learning will not be stopped.

However, instead of designing classrooms as obstacles to learning, we should find a way to support the learning that wants to occur naturally.

Attention, Memory, Intensity

I do not have too many answers here, but I will introduce three interrelated terms as a start: Attention, Memory, and Intensity.

Daniel Willingham’s book Why Don’t Students Like School? provides a useful model for how the mind retains factual information. He’s careful to point out that factual information is not sufficient for learning, but is often the basis for real learning, since in order to apply concepts and make creative evaluations, we must have a database of knowledge from which to pull and make connections. His simple model of how memory works presents educators with an opportunity to figure out where the bad connections might be in teacher-student communication:

Willingham argues that in order for data from the environment to make the transition from temporary working memory into (somewhat) permanent long-term memory two things need to happen: 1) said data must be subject to an intense level of attention while it is readily available in working memory, and 2) content previously stored in long-term memory must be pulled up and matched with the new data in order for it to permanently “stick.”

I would then couple this model with John Medina’s argument in Brain Rules that we most effectively store information in our memory when it is organized in a “top-down” manner. That is, instead of imagining a long list of vocabulary terms to be crammed into the brain like a scroll of paper inserted into a shredder, we should group and “chunk” information into concept-category that are big enough to hold a lot of related knowledge. Think of the mind as a series of drawers (I like the phrase “junk drawer”). One drawer might be “Romanticism.” (I have a drawer like that.) Once that drawer has been established and the key concepts and terms defined, you can open it up whenever you want and dump more stuff in. Then, when you want to remember something related to it, you don’t have to go rifling through all of your junk. Just pull out the Romanticism drawer. Items in that drawer tend to stick together and have interrelated functions.

Both Willingham and Medina stress the importance of getting students to pay attention, not simply to be nodding and following along, but to pay attention in a particular kind of way. Willingham thinks the most effective kind of attention is when students are thinking about particular and important meaning. This echoes the “Why” study I discussed in Part 2, but also Medina’s concept-containers. I think all of this connects back to intensity. Ideas and meaning matter. They also require more thought (again, as in the “why” study in Part 2), force the brain to construct its own connections, and to “turn on.”

So much of teaching comes back to the construction of analogies. When you’re trying to make a new concept “stick” you should look for some piece of knowledge already stored in the students’ long-term memories and compare the new concept to it. They need some sort of connection. This is also an opportunity for them to construct their own analogies, thereby activating their brains. Similar to asking “Why do you suppose that is?” You can ask, “Does this idea sound like anything you’ve heard before?”

One final note on “intensity.” Students do not pay attention when they’re bored. Sometimes this can’t be helped. As your mother used to say, “Only boring people get bored.” Some students would be bored watching live footage of an alien invasion on CNN. Don’t worry about it. Also, we should avoid thinking of education as entertainment, and we should avoid trying to be too “current” and “hip” in an effort to relate to what we think the students are into. Usually we’re wrong anyway, and then we come across as condescending ninnies.

However, we should not underestimate how tired and distracted and typically underwhelmed students can be. Sometimes this is their fault, and sometimes it’s not. I think students are desperate for reasons to pay attention. Be intense. Be interesting. Be funny, if possible, but be all of those things in service of learning. Many students just need to see that what you’re teaching is worth getting excited about.

The Teaching-Learning Paradox Revisited (Part 2)

If the conclusions in Part 1 are correct, it does not really matter which teaching method instructors use. Lecture? Small-group? Discussion? Tutorials? Online? Some combination of these? It makes no difference. Student outcomes on final examinations will be the same.

Perhaps this conclusion is way too obvious. Why should something as superficial as the physical arrangement of the room and the shuffling around of its human components have any meaningful impact on learning?

If I’m being honest, small-group work has always struck me as a gimmick hashed-out during some administrative retreat, and whenever I employ it, I always feel like I’m appealing to some newfangled rule book in order to check an activity off of a list.

It’s pedagogical hokey-pokey.

But this is too harsh. And I’m ignoring my own conclusions from Part 1. It is not the teaching method, per say, that affects learning. If small-group work is a gimmick, then so is lecturing.

The reason that The Teaching-Learning Paradox concluded that teaching method has no impact on learning is simple:  only learning has an impact on learning.

Cue the sound of a million minds being blown.

Here it is again, in case you missed it:  Only learning has an impact on learning.

(I know it sounds like a poorly edited bumper sticker, but stay with me.)

We like to think of learning as social, as shared, as something that happens together in collective spaces and that can be facilitated by arrangements supporting a diversity of human interactions, and we tend to preference intimate, close-knit combos in which we assume the exchange of ideas and reflections will be more fluid and will lead to comprehensive understandings that far exceed what one individual could think up alone sitting in a cold lecture hall listening to someone drone on about stagflation.

But there isn’t anything magical about these arrangements in-and-of themselves. And I suspect that they are just as likely to reinforce bad learning as they are to support it. I hate to use this cliché, but it seems appropriate: if the classroom is not centered on authentic learning, shifting into small group discussion is merely rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic.

So what is authentic learning? I don’t know, but I would like to suggest some conclusions reached by cognitive science, in particular the research that centers on how we learn. Ultimately, learning must take place in the brain, whether that brain is sitting in a lecture hall, in a small group, or in front of a computer screen. We have more knowledge now of how the brain learns, and instructors and students should take advantage of this knowledge to increase learning.

It seems that, because it was published in 1968, the conclusions of The Teaching-Learning Paradox could not take cognitive strategies into account. Furthermore, since their focus was on various teaching arrangements (and not on styles, strategies, and tactics*), they were unable to analyze the actual infrastructure of learning. This supports the criticism put forth by Ten Cate and others (see Part 1) that Dubin and Taveggia are not really measuring a dependent variable by comparing final exam scores. Also, what is the true effect on the student? Certainly, one key component of learning is the demonstration of content acquisition, but are the studies in The Teaching-Learning Paradox merely testing for how efficiently the knowledge provided by the instructor slid from his mouth and onto the final exam page? Seen in that light, every study that Dubin and Taveggia analyzed was a success. The knowledge did transfer, and all at the same rate.

But what about the students? Did they learn? Really, how would you expect to measure learning if you’re merely testing how the classroom is structured. You are not testing learning or learning strategies. You are, instead, testing physical arrangements. And if the instructor and the students are not employing strategies that facilitate learning, then what is the value of the study?

Fortunately, a lot of work has been done with authentic learning strategies based on cognitive research. And in order to test these strategies, you can look at studies that are not too dissimilar from the ones Dubin and Taveggia analyzed in The Teaching-Learning Paradox. Do classrooms that employ cognitive strategies result in greater learning on final examinations? (Later we’ll address the shortcomings of solely focusing on content knowledge and memorization, but, as many cognitive scientists note, memorization is a critical component to learning, though not sufficient in-and-of itself).

This new focus on learning strategies will be a true student-centered approach, since the goal will be to figure out how students actually learn** (how the brain actually works) and to design curricula, lectures, assignments, and study sessions with this knowledge in mind. And since, as Dubin and Taveggia point out, studying is a measureable difference-maker, teachers should find ways to facilitate student learning by teaching effective strategies, delivering content with the cognitive “tricks” in mind, and motivating students to take their learning into their own hands, hearts, and minds. (Is that a Girl Scout motto?)

What are these cognitive “tricks?”

Well, let’s take one. It doesn’t matter if you’re tutoring someone one-on-one, standing in front of a lecture hall filled with 500 students, or sitting in a circle with 15 students, if you’re not asking “Why?” your students aren’t learning.

Dunlosky, et al. present ten learning techniques based on cognitive research in a 2013 article titled “Improving Students’ Learning with Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology.” Each technique is summarized and bolstered with supporting studies. The first, “elaborative interrogation” is essentially a fancy way of asking students “Why?” and encouraging them to construct their own answers. You might present some content on (drawing from my own experience) the correlation between the increase in sophisticated literature during the so-called American Renaissance period  and the rise of American printing companies. “Why do you suppose literature became more sophisticated as more printing companies arose?” Or, in a Mythology course, you could have students read creation myths from several different cultures and ask them “Why do so many of these cultures portray female goddesses as earthbound and male gods as living in the sky?” The idea is that learners must now actively construct new knowledge in response to the question, and in doing so, retrieve existing knowledge in order to fill in the gaps: “The prevailing theoretical account of elaborative-interrogation effects is that elaborative interrogation enhances learning by supporting the integration of new information with existing prior knowledge” leading to insights that are “self-generated rather than provided” (8). More learning is actually occurring in the learner’s brain as they struggle to develop an answer, and not just as part of a transfer from the instructor to the pages of the final exam. The authors cite one study where “Why” questions were integrated into a biology text, resulting in higher exam scores compared to a control group.

This is true learner-centered, active learning, not the kind that is staged by simply rearranging the classroom. The interesting thing about the above study is that the vast majority of their strategies are student studying strategies, some involving annotation of texts, pacing of study sessions, and mnemonic devices. The idea is to empower students to turn their own brains on to better learning strategies. We want lifelong learners who learn to do things for themselves. We want more of the learning to be happening in their own brains.

I will discuss more examples of cognitive strategies in futures posts, but I’d like to close with a few words from education theorist Bill McKeachie who discussed the “learning” approach to teaching in a 2008 interview in Teaching of Psychology:

We also found that when students thought more about the material, they were likely to become more intrinsically motivated and interested in the material for its own sake rather than just to pass the test. That shift in focus makes a big difference. If teachers are interested in helping students learn for the rest of their lives, then they should want their students to develop intrinsic motivation for learning and not just learn when they are told to learn because they are going to be tested on it.

A couple of things here: First, next time I’ll discuss the work of Daniel Willingham (who is also one of the authors of the study I cite above) who echoes McKeachie’s deceptively simple call for getting students to think about the material. It sounds obvious. However, if you want to make something stick in the brain, you first need to figure out how to make it sticky.

Second, McKeachie’s emphasis on intrinsic motivation could not be more important. And this is exactly what Dubin and Taveggia’s The Teaching-Learning Paradox cannot measure. In fact, I don’t think intrinsic motivation can be measured quantitatively. This is what prompted B.F. Skinner to disagree with cognitive research, since it could not be observed as behavior could. (McKeachie recounts their disagreement in the interview.)

Dubin and Taveggia could, however, (in limited samples) measure the effect of studying, and found it to be positive for test results. If we can help students become intrinsically motivated, get them to pay closer and deeper attention (to think about the material, in Willingham’s and McKeachie’s formulation, which means to take advantages of cognitive tricks that line up with how the brain actually learns), arm them with proven study skills, and structure class sessions with the cognitive research in mind, measurable improvements might be recorded. If students need to learn how to learn, then teachers need to teach them how to learn.

In short: if you want learning, you have to teach learning.

*In Part 1, I suggested a difference between method and style. I’m going to alter this. I like the word “arrangements” better to describe Dubin and Taveggia’s focus on comparing lectures, discussion, one-on-one sessions and other such organizational methods. For now, at least, “styles, strategies, and tactics” will be a stand-in for a discussion of approaches to authentic learning that can occur irrespective of classroom arrangements.

**Next time I’ll cover Daniel Willingham’s claim that learning styles, as they have been propagated, do not exist.

The Teaching-Learning Paradox Revisited (Part 1)

A simple syllogism to begin:

1. All people are ideologues*.

2. Teachers are people.

3. You know what goes here.

If you reject the premise, you probably want to stop reading. You are the problem.

If you accept the premise, you also probably want to stop reading. Some unpleasantness flows from it.

There is a secret that snakes through the history of education research. In fact, it’s not even a snake. A snake could easily slip into the rushes and go unnoticed. What I’m writing about looks more like a roaring springtime river bloated with snowmelt. Don’t fall in.

NO DIFFERENCE

In their 1968 study The Teaching-Learning Paradox: A Comparative Analysis of College Teaching Methods, Robert Dubin and Thomas C. Taveggia analyze 40 years of research comparing the effectiveness of a range of college teaching methods, including lecture, discussion, tutorials, independent study, small group work, and TV courses (1968’s equivalent of online education). Their book can be summarized in two words: “No Difference.”

Dubin and Taveggia poured over the data of nearly 100 studies that compare teaching methods by using final examinations as dependent variables (a potential weakness I’ll discuss later). What they found should be disturbing to any instructor who has ever flown the flag for a particular teaching method, for example, favoring small group work over lectures.**

They repeat their conclusions frequently throughout the 86-page study, anticipating, rightly, that no one would listen:

In the foregoing paragraphs we have reported the results of a reanalysis of the data from 91 comparative studies of college teaching technologies conducted between 1924 and 1965. These data demonstrate clearly and unequivocally that there is no measurable difference among truly distinctive methods of college instruction when evaluated by student performance on final examinations. (35)

Lecture? Lecture plus discussion? Small group work? One-one-one tutorials? Self-directed independent study.

No difference. Regardless of method, students will earn the same grade on the final examination.

Rubin and Taveggia also compared small classes with large classes, as well as so-called instructor-centered vs. student-centered classrooms (a bizarre, Orwellian construct if I’ve ever heard one. More on that in future installments.)

No difference.

Just to repeat: When measuring the performance on college final examinations, lecturing is no worse or better than other methods (despite the lecture’s oh-so authoritarian overtones). In fact, it does not matter one whit which teaching method is employed.

Sure, 1968 is a long time ago, but The Teaching-Learning Paradox has been cited over 200 times since then, and there is widespread agreement on its conclusions. Medical educators seem particularly drawn to (and perhaps repulsed by) its conclusions. This is unsurprising given the importance of final exams in medical school, and the heavy content-knowledge required to become a medical professional (again, Rubin and Taveggia are measuring the kind of end-of-semester knowledge acquisition that many of us may find limiting).

Olle Ten Cate, a medical school professor and former president of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education, published an article in 2001 called “What Happens to the Student? The Neglected Variable in Educational Outcome Research” that is largely a response to the problem presented by Rubin and Taveggia. Ten Cate summarizes the problem (and the accompanying feeling of frustration). He also, however, begins searching for a way around the paradox:

Yet, is it conceivable that there really is no difference in the effects of such different treatments in education? How can we sustain the idea that systematically different educational approaches, not during one hour, not a day, or a week, but during four or six full years and thousands of hours of ‘experimental treatment’, will show hardly any measurable differential effect other than student opinion? (83)

He also points to the money that is being wasted on such studies, since it has been clear for decades that the overall conclusion is “No Difference.”

If we put so much money, time and energy in such huge curriculum experiments, some day the community might not remain satisfied with the consistent finding of ‘no difference’.

You could easily connect the conclusions of The Teaching-Learning Paradox to today’s hot teaching technology, online education. A 2009 meta-analysis of online education by the U.S. Department of Education showed no significant differences in the learning outcomes of three different teaching “mediums” (online, web-blended, and face-to-face). The study’s conclusions claim that blended students performed “modestly better,” but if you dig into the study a bit more, it stipulates that “the studies in this meta-analysis do not demonstrate that online learning is superior as a medium,” only that many of these course required more from students and instructors and “It was the combination of elements in the treatment conditions (which was likely to have included additional learning time and materials as well as additional opportunities for collaboration) that produced the observed learning advantages.”

This lines up nicely with Dubin and Taveggia’s conclusions. If I can take some liberties here and subvert Marshall McLuhan, it’s the message, not the medium.

In fact, as Dubin and Taveggia note, there are only two factors that are consistent in all 91 studies they analyzed: students enrolled in a course, and each course featured a textbook. Lecture at them. Make them watch you on TV. Make them do the work on their own. Make them log into a website. Tutor them.

As long as they are enrolled in your course and reading a textbook……

You guessed it:  No Difference!

HOW CAN I MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

Are you drowning yet? Rethinking your teaching method? Wondering whether or not this huge push for more interactive, student-centered learning environments (think ice-breakers, small group work, group projects, student agency, one-one-sessions) has been a complete waste of time?

Well, yes. Yes it has.

That is, if your central goal is to deliver content. The evidence seems clear. At the end of the semester, students will know about the same amount of stuff regardless of teaching method***. Read The Teaching-Learning Paradox and then sit through some faculty training on how to engage students. If you’re not furious, you can’t do math. Dubin and Taveggia’s work is lucid and straightforward, and seems to be supported with each new study on teaching methods. If your goal is for your students to obtain content knowledge by the end of the semester, you should be in open revolt against anyone who suggests that one teaching method is superior to another. It simply isn’t true.

But…

What if content delivery isn’t your ultimate goal? And what might Rubin and Taveggia be leaving out? In future posts, I will consider other studies and books that present the issue from a slightly different angle. For now, let me return to Ten Cate’s paper for some possible solutions. First, he provides a potentially depressing anecdote that (after some reflection) presents a way forward from The Teaching-Learning Morass:

Some call it the VanderBlij Effect, after the Dutch math professor who delivered remarkably clear lectures. However, students attending his lectures usually received lower grades at the test than those who had not attended his teaching. The latter were forced to study so hard to master the material that they really grasped it. But the effect we are discussing may affect students in both groups.

Oh my. Even skilled teachers are wasting their time? This story actually offers an important (and hopeful) truth: authentic student-centered environments (and student effort and study time) can have an impact. In fact, this was the only thing that Rubin and Taveggia found that did make a difference:

We found two studies in, the literature which compared some form of study with no study and evaluated their respective outcomes on examinations covering ability to recall or prove knowledge of course content.These studies had a total of six comparisons between groups of students who studied and those who did not, all of which were independent comparisons. The results are significantly in favor of study. (26)

The grand irony of many so-called student-centered learning strategies is that they are just more instructor-centered strategies in disguise. It’s the soft authoritarianism of ceding control.  Above, we find that if students actually take their learning into their own hands, it can make a difference. It seems to be the only thing that does. As one of my colleagues says, “I don’t teach no one nothing.”

The lesson of The Teaching-Learning Paradox is that if instructors apply their own methods (whether instructor-centered or student-centered) it will not make a difference. Hence, Ten Cate’s question, “What Happens to the Student?” He claims that the studies Rubin and Taveggia analyzed (and almost all subsequent studies that support their conclusions) have three massive flaws: First, they confuse an independent variable for a dependent variable. That is, the results of a final examination are not really the result of the teaching method, they are an extension of it. This is why, potentially, all of the final exam results do not vary. Second, these studies are not truly blind, and can never be. If they students know they are being taught, they will act differently. Third, the effects on the student are not being measured. Is education simply about inputs and outputs? Is it merely about transferring knowledge? Shouldn’t we be looking for models that measure the effects on student behavior, which is, ultimately the one factor that can make a difference, if we extrapolate from the above mentioned studies on “studying,” and on the true meaning of the VanderBlij Effect?

Maybe The Teaching-Learning Paradox does not present a paradox after all. It might simply be an infinite regress. When the twin mirrors of content delivery and final examination are made to face one another, you get a perfect, endless, pointless reflection.

END OF PART 1

*Perhaps I’m abusing this term. I simply mean that everyone operates from within a particular perspective or set of perspectives, and that we often, consciously or not, make judgments about the world based on assumptions that our perspectives are superior to others. I’m doing it right now. One purpose of this blog post is to point out that educators often charge forth into the classroom under the assumption that their methods of instruction (whether cutting edge or traditional) are the most effective ones available. Evidence to support such claims does not exist.

**The results of the study hold true for different mixtures of methods, such as combing lecture, discussion, and small group work.

*** Later, I hope to discuss the difference between “teaching method” and “teaching style.” I will also discuss some more recent cognitive research. It may well be that “style” is another “method,” and that style will also make “no difference.” I hope not.

Oral Literature (Part 1)

I made another video attempting to follower the “vlogger” approach (see my previous two posts). This is the first part of a two-part series on Oral Literature as it applies to my Mythology course.

Vlog Your Children Well

Below is my attempt to create an online lecture based on the advice given by Tad Suiter in the video I posted here. Essentially, by learning from the style of effective vloggers, Suiter recommends to create short videos (3-7 minutes) characterized by a style of fast-talking, high energy, and jump cuts to eliminate wasted time and space.

Basically, get in their face and engage them.

I’ve also included pictures, visuals, and some text. It’s a little long at 9:42, but as the opening lecture, I had some key definitions and concepts to cover. I think I can break it down some more.

Also, I’m still not comfortable editing in Camtasia yet, and some pictures move around a bit. I have a lot to improve (including higher energy levels, quicker cuts, more succinct delivery and outlining), but feel I’m heading in the right direction. Thanks, Tad!